Thyroid cystic lesions are a frequent finding in Thyroid Ultrasound (US) clinical practice, representing up to 30% of all thyroid nodules studied by US. In almost all cases, it is a completely benign finding.
Pure thyroid cyst are less frequent, explaining about 1% of thyroid nodule, while hemorrhage and necrotic changes are seen in the most art of thyroid cysts.
Normally, these lesions are completely asymptomatic: however, they can produce cosmetic or compressive discomfort.
Fine-Needle aspiration (FNA) of the fluid content can transiently relief symptoms, but in up to 80% of cases, thyroid cysts recur after FNA.
In the last 25 years, PEI has been successfully used to treat thyroid cysts, whit a reduction of cosmetic and symptomatic problem in about 70% and 80% of patients, depending of the study series.
PEI is currently considered the first-line and resolutive treatment for cystics lesions causing local discomfort and/or cosmetic concerns in patients.